tv Discussion Focuses on Community Policing CSPAN August 27, 2016 11:35am-1:20pm EDT
she's a inspiring leader for all of us and a great supporter of the work that is being done on the justice group. please come up. catherine: so, let me welcome you to cna. that is my job here today, i am very much looking forward to the afternoon and hearing what you have to say. so, and welcome to this executive session on policing. so, our topic today is the impact of policing reforms on local government. so, first, we are going to define the reforms out of consideration for policing today. and then explore from a variety of local government perspectives, mayors, city managers, other partners in public safety what the impact of these reforms is going to be. very grateful we have speakers here today who can speak to both of these issues,
both reforms and what it looks like, from a local government standpoint. thank you for coming today. and your time and energy you have put into being here and making this session have an. -- sessionhappen. thanks to those in the rooma and those online. i thought it was a little bit about what cna. i met a few people who know cna pretty well but somebody did ask me what cna stood for. the center for naval analysis. i will get into that in a little bit. n profit no institution that uses analysis to help government be more effective. our approach is unusual in the field of research and analysis. and certainly in this town. that is it involves placing analysts where the action is happening. re embedded analyst to support operations like combat. and first responders, but also exercises or training for these
types of operations. so, the operators really like having an analyst close by, maybe not a first, but certainly as they get used to it. but also, those insights they gain in an operational setting served to influence the recommendations that we ultimately provide. we have two parts to the organization. the first is the center for naval analysis which is the department of navy's federally funded research and development center. the origins of the center date back 75 years to the second world war. so, we're about to celebrate our 75th anniversary. we developed a some pioneering analytical techniques to help military leaders defeat the uboat threat the other part is the institute for public research, ipr. that has been around for 25 years. they apply the same approaches on the defense side of the house. defense agencies like
the department of homeland security, like fema, like the department of education, of course, the department of justice. our work for the department of justice has been carried out by our justice group. i actually slip sometimes and called on the justice league, that goes back to the focus on being on the ground. anyway, they cover a lot of topics as a group from ambushes on police to body cameras and critical incident analyses. after action reports on lessons learned from the las vegas metropolitan police department's ambush incident is emblematic of these reconstructions of incidents. detailed and comprehensive reconstruction and analysis of the events that occur. while it's painful for those involved to have to relive it. the results together or we are talking to them about getting some of the data and getting a
sense of what happened, those steps are important to minimize the likelihood that repeatedly tragic events will occur. like so many of you in the room and online, our justice group is heavily involved ing furthering the reform recommendations to the president's task force. that lorio mention robinson has served as a cochair of that task force alongside chief ramsey. she is a member of cna's board of trustees. so, the reforms we are focused on have to do with body worn cameras, crisis intervention training, de-escalation training. procedural justice and bias training an officer wellness programs. so, this session represents that istrade of cna and to look at issues in the broadest possible light. in this case, how police reforms affect local government
officials and these officials are partners with policing and public safety. it is important that their perspectives are incorporated into these efforts. again, welcome to cna. i'm going to turn it back over to chip and he's going to introduce the session in more detail. i want to call out two people. one is denise rodriguez. she is right in front, the coordinator and main driver of today session. an zoe is taking care of the technical aspects of this conference. welcome to cna. chip, i'm turning it back over to you. thank you. you very much, catherine, for those thoughtful welcoming remarks. it is very nice and gratifying to have your interest and support in the work we do. so, on behalf of the justice group, or the justice league,
and the safety and security division of cna, i'm very proud to welcome everybody here this afternoon. and for four specific reasons. this is actually the last session in our second series of the executive sessions at cna. we have been doing this for two years now. been well attended by people with diverse interests. by no means, the last session ever. we will continue the sessions into the coming years. with this session's focus on local governments, we are branching out a bit from our common theme we have had around policing in america. we want to talk more about the interconnectedness of policing to other social institutions and the need for systemic thinking about social problems and developments. we have with us a very stronger but panelists today. of experiencet
and a lot of passion for the work they do. i'm very proud to have them with us. we are proud that this series, this executive series, is totally funded by cna. while we work with government clients, they do not dictate these sessions to us. these are our ideas, collaboratively generated. we are very proud about that. let's take a quick look at the topic and the agenda for today. this topic was influenced as i noted by our desire to branch out from police only topics. it was also influenced by our conversations with leonard -- he's a primary consultant with the itma, on matters pertaining to law enforcement and public safety. i thank leonard for his interest an. i think we can all agree that police reform is a national topic. and a national interest. it's not just an artifact of the
media. i think we can all agree that this is important to look at how to bring about change in american policing's. but it's also import to look at the impacts of changes in american policing. intended or unforeseen. bringingmore about change to policing and to have a more comprehensive and holistic view of the these things. our topic for today per diem tech to policing reforms on local government, which we asked you consider a two-way relationship. certainly policing reforms should have impacts on local government. certainl government has impacts on policing. we hope to explore both aspects in our conversations this afternoon. now, today's agenda has book ends. we will start with a presentation from a local government. perspective and we'll end with a
presentation from a policing perspective. will find somewe commonalities in those perspectives, but they are uniquely different perspectives as well. in between, we'll hear from two panels of experts. first, a panel a policing experts to help bring some clarity to the types of reforms that we are talking about here and will offer their perspectives on the relationships between reform and local government. next, we will hear from a panel of local government and cost-benefit experts who will offer their perspectives. what do they expect to get from these reforms? and at what cost? we have reserved time for questions at the close of each speaker. and each panel. so, please let us know what is on your mind. we welcome questions and comments from our group of participants as well as from anybody in the room. before we begin with our first presenter, permit me a minute to thank everyone.
our ceo catherine mcgrady and her leadership team, again thanks for your support, ourcially to tim berris, executive vice president for the institute for public research and dave kaufman our directive of the safety and security division. from whom we get the most amazing support for our work here. to our presented for today who graciously accepted our invitations and complied with various requests. remoteaudiences here and who encourage us with their presence, their intellect, their probing and their collegiality. --n the staff particulars who have worked hard to pull this thing together over the last couple months. thank you one and all. now let's hear from our first
percent or. -- presenter. gould,ing to ask rod former city manager of santa monica, two addresses. -- to address us. he is a former local government official. you can read his bio. he is a leader, he is a writer, a teacher, a volunteer. he went to great double to -- trouble to be with us today. we appreciated very much. >> thanks. it is a pleasure to be with you today. thank you for participating in this executive session. i think we need to start with the why. why police reforms? why is this a subject? i think the answer which is abundantly clear to all of you is that we face a crisis of confidence in american policing these days. rarely does a week go by when there isn't a new national news
story with an officer-involved shooting owhere the victim is a andon of color who dies sparks community outrage. and despite tremendous improvement in crimes is fresh e suppression over the last two decades, the confidence in american police he has been dropping. and continues to drop. particularly amongst the poor, young people and people of color. and likewise, the police view of the people they are to protect and serve is also being harmed. according to gallup research, currently 58% of white americans their police department's, and only half african-american feel the same way. and a total of 49% of all americans believe the criminal justice system is biased.
know many police officers that serve with integrity. that are just and honor the badge in the communities they serve. we know that. we also know that the systems and cultures of many police departments give rise to acts of brutality and violence and lethal acts that are far too co mmon in american society and tear at the community bric. the advent of handheld technology has made too public what has been occurring for far too long in our society. 680,000 law enforcement personnel in america are stigmatize with every viral video. so, the police are losing confidence and legitimacy. and that is a threat to our civil society and to local government. yet, there is ample evidence
that policing has never been more demanding, requiring highest levels of judgment, emotional maturity, and interpersonal skills. the backlash against police officer split many at risk of bodily harm or worse. how do we make sense of these adverse trends in fact? i think a it is time for us to re-examine our local police agencies from top to bottom. we must commit to comprehensive reform if we are to stem the tide of the loss of confidence, respect, and trust in american policing. we must revamped our law enforcement agencies in terms of both systems and culture. only by addressing the systems that undergird policing and the sometimes malignant aspects of police culture can law enforcement regain its rightful place in society and we prevent
new this tragedies and losses. the president's task force on 21st century policing gives us a great guideline to many promising reforms. police chiefs and sheriff's. i suggest people examine it and the implantation guide to determine what reforms would be most appropriate in your local jurisdictions. while systems and cultures are intertwined, i would like to parse some of the more prominent reforms for you this afternoon. so, but start with governance. who many people believe is the father of modern policing, 19th century british fellow, had a principle that said that the police are the public and the public are the police. to that end, whether you operate council members
form a government, or commission oversees the police department, whether you are elected or appointed, you need to engage more deeply with policing because the stakes have never been higher. this is more than budgeting, advocacy, and legislation. now we need to talk about civilian oversight. new forms of civic engagement to reconnect the police with those they are to protect and serve. this is somewhat controversial. and the research is yet to show a causal relation between civilian oversight and improve policing. yet the demands are great and in each community you're going to need to figure out what level of civilian involvement if not oversight is appropriate for your community. is it police review boards, is a police review commission's? but what becomes very clear from the research is that involving the public more and functions
that otherwise had been closed off to the public is positive and healthy. that could include recruiting, training, policymaking, and ongoing dialogue on police/community issues. review of critical policies is now essential in all police agencies across the country. electedher you are an leader, it administrative, or the chief, you need to start looking at ke policiesy, develop them and you need to do it in concert with the community served and your police officer's. and their unions. obviously, the biggest issue is use of force. we do not have a national standard. there is a debate that is upon us amongst the professional police associations. the police executive research ownm has issued its guidelines about what use of force policy should be nationwide. the international association of chiefs of police takes issue recommendations,
feeling they go too far and will put officers at risk. you need to engage in this discussion. we need to engage your community and your officers and find what is the right level, what is the right policy on use of force and then train on it and enforce it in your communities. the same goes for consent before searchers. in too many communities, police are lax here. you must ask permission and you must let the people know that they have a right to refuse. that has to be trained and part of an active policy. mass demonstrations have taught many lessons in america, some of them terrible lessons, about how to avoid a peaceful demonstration becoming a riot. an there are technical and policy lessons to be learned, and you need to develop them way before you have the incident and the demonstration. you need to know how to protect people, exercising the first amendment rights and also protect other civilians and the police themselves so that everyone's rights are protected and it does not degenerate into
deep aspirants.. you need to have that done -- it does not degenerate into needless violence. we must respect people's gender identity, and that means in the holding cells, in jails. we cannot do bodily searches. we have to be much more respectful. there is a prohibition under the law on racial profiling. it is illegal in the united states. even though there is a prominent candidate for president who would instituted for a particular religion. it is illegal and it is wrong, and your policies must indicate so, and you must train on it and you must discipline is necessary. performance measures. done.s measured is you need to ask yourself, what are your measuring in your police department, because there may be unintended consequences for what you are measuring. you also need to ask yourself what are you doing with that information and does the public
have access to it? a collection and recording of data. police departments generate a whole lot of it more useful than others. you need to go back and audit and ask are we collecting the right data, putting it to some use and how much of it is acceptable to the public, how much are we going to report? then there is the use of technology. technology is a wonderful thing, manyt's also a bane on forms of invisible service. because it will always outstrip policy. whether it is body worn cameras or drones or facial recognition software or advanced uses of social media. the technology will always outstrip our ability to decide how and when to use it. so, if you are going to embrace the technology, you need to get out front and decide under what circumstances are you going to
use it, are you going to protect privacy, who gets to control it, how much of it is going to be non-,ublic, what are essential uses what is off-limits? you need to get clear on your technology policies. then you need to emphasize partnerships, because too often police departments operate somewhat in their own silos separate from the rest of the organization and believe that they and they alone can keep order and prevent crimes in the community. and that is absolutely false. unless the police department are -- with other community agencies, other city departments. community mental health, the schools, nonprofits, social services and the like, you will never be -- and so, you need to emphasize this in your policies and practices. one thing the research is a showing that the public cares just as much about how it is treated as outcomes. yes, the public was the police
to catch the bad guys and prevent crime and disorder but the public wants procedural justice. and your policies have to be, o procedural t justice. let's go to recruitment. we need to change the way we recruit. for police officers. this is an incredibly important role. and recruiting is getting hard these days. not so many people want to be police officers anymore. we need to recruit people who are more reflective of the communities they are going to serve. that is easily set. that is harder to do. one thing you can do is ask the community to recommend people who might be good police officers. after that horrific situation in dallas, where five officers were gunned down by a mad men, the police chief put out a call to the community. they had many vacancies on the dallas police officer in he asked for the community to come forward with applicants, people who might be good police officers.
hundreds stepped forward. more and more cities and police agencies need to ask the community who might be a good police officer. and it is not just about racial and gender equity. it is also about age and language and life experience and cultural experiences. we need diversity in all these areas if we are going to really reflect the communities we have to protect and serve. allust beware of stereotypes about makes a good cop. that often get no way of our crewmen efforts. effeur recruitment cts. and we need more women. there is more evidence that women perform better than men in many situations. they generate less complaints for excessive force. they have high performance evaluations. they do much better in domestic violence situations. we need more women in law enforcement. and we have got to focus our common efforts accordingly. then there is selection -- our
recruitment efforts accordingly. we do not do a good job of selecting amongst the candidates we get. we often make mistakes. to involve more assessment centers, besides the interview process in the background checks. assessment centers that test judgment in real-life situations. so you can see whether or not this person does a good interview or whether this person will perform well under pressure that can occur any day as a police officer. and you might consider using the ters if they are properly trained and as actors in the assessment centers. deep background checks for judgment, temperament, honesty, empathy, interpersonal skills, emotional maturity and tolerance. and you ought to give preference for community involvement. people that are already volunteering should get first choice. to get additional consideration.
training, it was mentioned in one of the biggest reforms possible and necessary in american policing. it is to start with the principles of community policing. community policing has been around since the 1980's. we all know that community policing isn't a fat. -- fad. it isn't a program. it isn't an approach. it isn't a strategy. it's a philosophy of how a lease our civil society. you need to start the training with that and ended and constantly reinforces throughout the officer's career. particularly the notion that we are guardians, stewart's of civilization rather than warriors. and this gets to larger issues. we have to avoid the tendency towards militarization. yes, it's easy to get military equipment donated from various levels of the federal government and a president obama has put some limits on that, that we've gone too far enough to make of our police forces look like occupying forces. and so we need to step back and go back to the universe can even if we were in the body armor under it so that we don't look like military warriors and
instead we are guardians, we are protectors. dignity and respect for all has to be the watchword for all training from the initial training that you get in the academy to the field training you receive as an officer and remedial training to dignity and respect for all. that's what we're going to win back the trust and confidence. reality-based training and crisis intervention training. these have proven to vastly improve that the choice of police officers make under great stress, under terrible conditions. and by using the new technology it can be more efficient and we can make real changes that avoid tragic decisions and horrible losses. teaching police officers how to
deal with those with mental disabilities is essential. we have a mental health crisis in america. we all know that. join the c-span conversation -- like us on facebook, follow us on twitter. it's been going on since the '80s but officers don't not recognize certain symptoms and behaviors as being indicative of certain mental illnesses they may overreact or react incorrectly and make the situation quite worse. de-escalation that alternatives to arrest have to be taught right alongside how to take control of the situation and how to do the hard work. have to be equal in training period because contrary to the current notion which is that the officer must step up and easily, and the situation and put down any resistance sometimes stepping back, buying time, getting distance, getting reinforcement is a much better strategy elites do far better outcomes. implicit bias training is now essential. most people know what racial discrimination is. most people would say that they don't have have a discriminative bone in their bodies, but all of
us have innate biases that we may or may not be aware. training officers to know when they're acting on the implicit bias and to know how that is being read by others is critical to the success in various communities. that i think you need ongoing self defense courses. most police academies you get about eight hours of self-defense and very little in the rest of your career. the officers that are very confident about their ability to defend themselves are often the last ones to use it to its counterintuitive but it's true so we need to invest in debt. practices, practice community policing the you know what this is. it the officers out of the cars, getting into the neighborhoods, leave them aside in the neighborhood long enough to begin to know the key actors in neighborhood. create schedules with her is time for them to interact with the local grocers, with the kids on the sidewalk with a local homeowners, the people that are around all the time.
this builds the community cohesion, builds trust and offices, told the officers obtained information that is necessary to prevent crime and suppress it. this is the key to community policing. too often we get away from it and officers feel they don't have time because they're waiting for the next call. we need to get back to these principles. partnerships and relationships as i mentioned our essential to promoting non-enforcement activities. we've got to see our officers interacting with the public come in when it is a time for a citation or arrest but, you know, a hostile situation. that will build our confidence. we need to engage the police department and community white efforts didn't with the root causes of crime. endemic social issues such as poverty, such as homelessness, such as poor health care and weak education. the police can't solve these problems but it out to be part of the there is institutions and organizations that are working hard to solve them.
they have to be at the table. they have a lot to offer. these people voice during interaction about being new to this is a tough one but officers need to be trained and assisted so that they can let people blow offoff steam. you let people be insulting and act horribly without overreacting and escalating it. this is something that we need to train and insist upon, and they need to be more transparent about the decision-making to this is what i'm doing this, because of that. they have to be logical and fair. you should do regular surveys of attitude towards the police department and published results. we published results of crime trends all the second we measured and year to year. cities need to do the same thing with the attitudes towards their police departments. it's not that expensive. we should collect data on the use of force, officer involved
shootings, and we need to report it. that information should be immediately accessible and we should share with the our agencies. there should actually no profiling. we should collect data on stops, searches and seizures so we can examine to make sure that we are not profiling as we go. there should be no quotas whatsoever for tickets or for citations or arrests come particularly as regards revenue. ferguson was the most outrageous example where in 2013 ferguson with a five of 21,000 had 33,000 outstanding warrants for arrest. it was all revenue driven. it was essential to the budget strategy of the city and the city manager i'm sad to say. you need to provide no tolerance for racism for sexual misconduct or harassment. none whatsoever. and incentivized his activities. get the officers out there reading to the kids, mentoring the kids, the coaches. he got to find ways to make a part and parcel of the duty if we are going to get the youth back on the side of the police
officers and develop another generation that will possibly want to become police officers one day. we need to recognize that the lgbtq community has suffered tremendous harassment and assault for many years oftentimes at the hands of our police, and we need to rectify that. we need to provide the best possible equipment to our officers to keep them safe whether body armor, tactical first aid kits, whether it's weaponry, whether it's the best uniforms, as communication equipment. we cannot script on this. we've got to provide robust health care including mental health intervention for our police officers because police officers tend to suffer more than the general population from depression, poor health, alcohol and drug dependence, divorce, suicide. we need to keep it active on our police officers and help them and provide wellness programs. body-worn cameras, i think they're becoming the national
standard to yes, there's pushback by a number of police unions, yes, there are a lot of issues that have to be worked through as far as the initial cost, how it is stored, who gets access to it, privacy couple of these things have to be worked out but i think we're moving there as a nation. i think there are quite a few departments now with the officers believe the body-worn cameras are actually an asset and help them against the public is sometimes is not reasonable and makes fabricated accusations. external independent investigations of police misconduct in police shootings are essential. the public does not trust the police to investigate the police. there needs to be somebody outside who is neutral look at the police contacted this to be any credence by the public. you must come if you have any trust by the minority and
immigrant communities you must separate immigration policy from law enforcement. many chiefs associations have been vocal about that for 20 years. time and i could communications about major police activities, yes, you don't want to ruin an investigation. yes, there are privacy concerns. yes, there are a lot of legal hurdles but you need to get out there. too often something terrible happens and its report over and over for four or five days by the local press, the public is disgusted that it's all over the internet and the blogosphere in the police department has yet to even comment the that can't go on. regular opportunities to the public and officers both to be heard. five minute warning. ok. we need to get better about having the opportunity for police to go out and talk to the public which can be angry can which can be confrontational and at the same time we got here from our officers because they have an equally important you.
fiscal impacts of all of this are quite considerable. if you undertake this comprehensive reform of this going to cost you more to recruit, retain and comments to your employees. equivalent will cost more affordable cost more to self-insure. consider the alternatives. to the risk analysis. if you don't prevent these deaths and injuries, if you have the cost of liability payouts come together cost of settlement agreements, if you have lost commerce and tourism, if you receive drops in poverty guns and push for community pride or lost opportunities for civic progress to to fear and distrust, the cost of imported when police department are just too great. the opportunities to see cost sharing and collaborative government are great of a dependable talk about this. mutual aid, consolidation, join together for training purposes, joint use of equipment and to use of management and administer overhead costs.
you have a fine series of speakers and panelists this afternoon. i commend them to you and to help that at first the discussion. but please let's lead to action because i'm quite convinced that this crisis in confidence in american policing gets worse i the month. thank you very much applause the thank you very much. [applause] >> we have time for a question or two. >> congratulations. one of the questions that i had [inaudible] the second problem has been trying to answer the calls for service versus having officers available
to spend time in communities? >> and acknowledging that most police departments are quite small. 50% other police departments have less than 10 officers. 75% have less than 25 when you you are taking office all day to go into this training you are lowering the service level. absolutely. and so this is where the chief and the manager have to be clear about what the priorities are. insurance are lowering the cost for some the specialized trainings, these simulators are very expensive. i would not expect those cities could ever begin to reach the cost of owning there. however if you form a consortium of local governments, the cities and counties together share these, some of the mover in areas so you get your time on them, and check to make time for your officers to go work on them. it will pay you dividends down
the road. and so these are some of the very difficult decisions that have to be made with a budget in mind with the city priorities but again the stakes are just too i got to properly train and support and equip our officers. thank you. >> thank you. great opening period fantastic information. you were former city manager -- >> i managed for cities and worked in police issues in massachusetts but predominantly california. >> fantastic. can you tell me generally across the for cities that you managed
what percentage of your general fund was the combined police, fire budget speak with please, fire budget represents a majority of the general fund expenditures foremost full-service cities. in california and ugly across the country. between the police and fire generally 60, 70%. >> thank you. >> you bet. one last question. [inaudible] >> is there still some marketing did you on that? is a more about finding resources? >> i think that they're still quite a few elected and appointed officials, including my colleagues, who believe that there are terrible things happening in other cities that will never happen in their cities or towns. they believe that their police are playing at a different level and absolute -- with their
public is another these tragedies could happen in their city or town until they do. and so i do believe that there are many local officials that think that there are other priorities they would rather deal with private investing in police reforms. >> all right, thank you. [applause] >> that was indeed a very good start. and rod gould took time out of a very busy schedule to be with his so he has to run off which is what i wanted to get those questions and. so thank you again. we ask a lot of our presenters. so i'm going to ask my next panel to come up, know already, joe, rodney. while they are coming up on was a couple words about how we run the sessions. you saw that reflect a five minute warning up for rod. when we have four people on a
panel like this, each of you could probably deliver a semesters with the material on the topics they're going to talk about, they have just about what our tickets to all of the comments and that type of question. so we limited to about 10 to 12 and for each presentation and that is the big challenge. we need to get to all presentations. please do not be offended if we start flashing the sign that you. most of you are familiar with this. i think what i'm going to do is just take a few minutes to introduce the entire panel and then i will turn it over to know to start us off. so we have noble ready, who's the chief of police in practice accountability initiatives at the cops office, newly established unit that i think about primarily for the need to institutionalize the reforms but also a lot to do with
collaborative reform and critical incident response. but he is the presidential appointee who is leading the charge on implementation of reforms in the task force. that's no small task believe you me. he has got 30 three years of service as a police officer he rose to achieve in the madison, wisconsin, police department. his passion is what he calls trustful policing. he served at the police leadership institute in lowell, massachusetts. is a certified trainer and several other national recognized training firms. and he served a stint as the board president for united way of dane county. a tremendous amount of experience. a tremendous amount of passion for the work we are doing. following him will be joel mchale who is a major in the
kansas city police department. we know joe and we respected joe in large part because he headed up are smart policing initiative in kansas city called the no files allies and did a tremendous job. dyed in the wool police officer who can set a vision and make things happen like i've not seen any other person to in a long time. very impressive. i think other thing i want to say about you is he spun one of police officers in the country, one of the very few who can go around the country and teach people about social network analysis. so this is presented to him as part of the police initiatives, pretty sophisticated analytical approach to understanding social networks and gain networks. working within an interrupting them, he embraced it as they please manager and supervisor. he really dug into the statistical techniques and i told you about social network analysis. very conversant on the. following him will be harold madlock also someone just under three years extremes in law enforcement.
he recently spent three years as the police chief in fayetteville, north carolina, and other collaborative reform and other initiatives he has brought a tremendoutremendou s amount of reform and positive change to that department. tremendous crime reduction and he is shown great leadership in fayetteville. we will end up with rodney monroe. rodney this result by the chief of the charlotte-mecklenburg please department. he was a point in that role in 2008. he's got a similarly lengthy resume in law enforcement including richmond, virginia, washington, d.c. police department. so he's got a ton of experience as well. so noble, why don't you lead us off and please be mindful of the time. >> i certainly well. and thank you for the introduction. welcome and really happy to be
a. as always with didrex e&a, i struggle what angle to take, take at this. the issue is reforms, and leaving the policing practices and accountability initiative i've had ample opportunity to talk to law enforcement all over the united states. the question that keeps coming to my mind in the earlier speaker talked about it, why change? why change the 18th of 90,000 law enforcement agencies equal number of people heading those. why change? i think many of us are aware of the force change from the fear of change, in fear, experience if you don't change the lawsuit, high profile video that's on tv at night. so that's one way to understand a lot of time talking about that
because i think we all understand that part. but i do think there are probably three of the ways that i've heard law-enforcement executives and law-enforcement leaders across the united states talk about why they're doing something to why they are leaving reforms but why their change. one is constant improvement the individually or collectively if they want to improve. it's a personal belief that a consulate want to improve. second is transformation, to know there's a changing dynamic inside the agency and outside of the agency. in order to keep up with what's going on, in order to meet what's happening that you must change. a quick example when i joined policing 30 years ago we were talking about things like diversity and inclusion. to become to embracing diversity. then we got to valuing diversity and that we talk about things like bias. if you are not preparing your agency for reforms, because you know that will happen, you have to be a transformational leader. i hear leaders talk about that. then i will talk about reforms. reform a system standpoint and from a personal standpoint because i think these are all reasons that i'll give you some of the challenges that we are seeing across the united states as relates to reform. taking a step in my career i cut my teeth on total quality management. total quality management there were certain things that people believe in from a personal standpoint that you believe in constant improvement. that arguably been constant
improvement but you from systems and processes before you blame people. that you lead a 95% of the people that you lead as well you have seen few of the committee. your work is customer driven. if you are resting some of them into giving him a ticket for you giving up an award to an officer, its customer driven. had to meet or exceed customer expectations? you view every contact, every contact as a reason to meet or achieve customer expectation. it's a plan to check mentality. i bring this up and i talk about it because i have found the agency that leaders that grab ethic, that mentality, that it's not just that high profile after action report but it is when you have that individual contact, when you look at improving training, when you're looking at improving communication.
people that do this are constantly in a state of reform and improving. it's a plan to mentality. transformation. the whole issue with conservation is not just transforming the agency but constantly assessing where your agency is, the person of the resources, people, diversity, a host of things and asking yourself where do we need to be in two years, the reduced to
four years? then work collectively to get there. what i see as a longtime sometimes we get overly focused internally, forget external. i do have to tell anyone that changing dynamic outside in our communities are just unbelievable. when i started as a chief of police, not talking about dark cam, not talk about public safety tweet, talk about black lives matter and we're not talking about the ferguson sector all of these things on it and just be dynamic and stay on top of the ticket to reforms. policing reforms, policing practices of one of the major initiatives is collaborative reform. let me talk about that. reforms are usually tied to different issues and topics. what we're tying to get at his best practices, evidence-based approach is, principle driven approaches as well as constitutional policing. they manifest themselves in community policing, training
officers and de-escalation and training office of best practices that use of force, increasing diversity of our law enforcement agents and approving data collection and transfer the. that's how these things manifest themselves. a positive part i think about reform and there are number of them, collaborative reform and reform is that it gives us as a profession a way of looking at as they feel the what is our collective wisdom as to where we need to be? if you look at the 21st century policing recommendations and you follow those 58 recommendations, essentially that's the collective wisdom of the field and sank this is where we need to be as relates to reforms. it also impose collaborative reform processes give us a process to work through these things. so we can work systematically and in a transparent fashion. there are challenges with reform. the arson charges. let me talk about those. most reforms, collaborative reforms as -- if i don't do this, and i will get in trouble. if i don't do this, this risk aversion. when talking to achieve or a
mayor or someone across the united states, the sense is if, can i avoid not doing this? am i going to get in trouble if i don't do this? is a grade a consent degree of pattern or practice? no. you do it because it's the right thing to do. it still has that risk aversion feel to it. because with reforms, you focus on those very formal systems like training, policy, practices and procedures and equipment. sometimes we overemphasize those and would lose out on one of our biggest, i call it a blindside. we lose out on the informal culture in focusing on how to focusing on how do we change that, what do we do? so we can change of policy, change of procedure but are changing what office are actually doing? are we changing what we really do? are we changing how people perceive what we're doing? i think we lose out on the informal culture.
the other challenge that i see with reforms is that it's very hard, i think the early speaker talked about this here it is you can not do a systemic broad like a collaborative reform without invite you having for things on board. one is left of local government support because you'll need the resources. you have to have leadership that's willing to step up and open themselves up and have the courage. three, community stakeholders that are watching, monitor and holding people accountable. and then force you also have to have the rank-and-file bite into it, the culture, that they are also part of that accountability mechanism that takes place. we do understand the chief is supposed to lead and be the catalyst for making this happen but the reality is that if change is going to take place you've got to have community members involved in this. i think one of the things we have to do in a collaborative reform or reform standpoint, we have to figure ways to engage the community in a systemic way. if i think we can do an independent review of a department, and objective independent review, but i do think it's important if you can
work citizens into the implementation and monitoring that that would help us and go on long way with accountability and improving reforms. the other thing i will mention that makes a reform of makes a reform of challenge is that usually when law enforcement or the justice department so what is called in to deal with reforms, something tragic has happened to there's a lot of hurt feelings that are taking place. finding that way of reconciliation without blame, finding that we did talk about these issues for change without there being such a dynamic that
you can't get past it, that hurt that exists. finding that we did talk about so what does it look like with two agencies? there are a number of agents the event and fought with reform and a lot of these pop out of the. los angeles company las vegas, nevada, a just completed collaborative reforms process. they are further along than any of our agencies from the department of justice that is done that. here's some of the outcomes of las vegas. the success of completed 98% of
kansas city historically has been one of the most violent cities in the united states. oftenhough casey p is viewed as competent and progressive, as organization, we have been unable to impact the crime that is destroying the fabric of the community. the reform recommendations of the 21st century policing task force and the collaborative effort of law enforcem, prosecutors, social service providers and community members have allowed us to take strides to built trust in the community.
the kansas city, missouri prius department has engaged in a multi faceted violence reduction strategy that engages services and support to those deemed at-risk for violent crimes. police historically have been an agency that was feeding the pipeline to prison and a segment of our community that had been segregated. the report highlights the need for technology to improve our efforts to combat crime. violence spreads like a disease. those individuals that are connected to violence -- we can see the process.
a police department can focus our efforts on prevention and engagement rather than arrest and prosecution. greatest concerns is the cost associated with it. in kansas city it cost less than $5,000 to drive this model that shows you the .5% of the community causing the problems. moreking our efforts surgical and focused the random shotgun approach of proactive policing can become a thing of the past. we pride ourselves on being an agency with excellent training and tactics immolated across the united states. retreat is not in our volunteer and never will be. it has led to the most tactical process of all officers in the united states. by training officers to diffuse a lethal confrontation rather
than result to lethal force are officers are placing them in better positions of safety while not allowing the threat to escape or cause further harm. just because the law says you can justifiable take a life doesn't make it right. a culture shift occurring and we have better for it. kcpd under went a shift. an an order to each commander was issued that we would eliminate the position of community interaction officer. initially, our community was like why are you doing this?
what is wrong? the fact is the cio's had become a position that hammered our efforts to further involve our officers with the citizen as they serve. it had become a crutch for others not to engage because that is what the cio is for. our department is now walking down a new path and the greatest must learn to triage our work better. our civic partners are the key
to this process. i supervise the patrol vision that is one of the most violent in the united states with a murder rate 11 times the nag national average. i have 155 officers that answer thousands of calls a year. just in the past three weeks, they have been violated assault, pin downed by fun fire, two suffered concessions, one bit by a human and one had an ak-47 pointed at them. they are being assaulted and trauma traumatized on one call and expected to embrace the society on the next call. we must understand the challenges placed on the officers and provide support without labeling them as weak. the president's 21st generation force task generated 96 item acs based on six pillars. i am sure most agree the hundred page document, sending them on their way with a new mindset a challenge. however, that same police officer can be impacted through specific direction and leadership of the organization itself to meet the recommendations in the report without them knowing it. in closing, i want to share a short story on a challenge we face. late last night i received an e-mail, a letter from a citizen in the community who related that i was failing as the commander of the east patrol vision. he suggested to me i would succeed if i would give each officer three extra pair of
handcuffs, send them into the neighborhood and tell them not to come back until they were filled. my point is there must be a concerted effort beyond law enforcement it address the biases and misconceptions in the community and how to engage that. our civic leaders and partners in local government are the key to bridging those gaps. thank you. [applause] >> good afternoon, i am herald med lock with the fayetteville police department in fayetteville, north carolina. i want to start by saying i have worked for seven different polie chiefs in my career. the last three i learned a great
deal from as i rose to the rank and then the very last one was probably the most demanding but i learned the most from him and took a lot of what i learned to fayetteville, north carolina. so i was brought into fayetteville, i just want to tell you my story. i was brought into fayetteville, north carolina as a result of a great division between the police department and the community we serve. in 2012, the department went through something called driving while black and it was a search
problem. there was a great deal of mistrust, not just from the community toward the police department, but from the police department toward the community. a great disconnect. in 2012, our officers were involved in seven deadly force incidents in a city of 225,000. 2013, i took over in february, we already had two and we had two more after my arrival. it was an interesting time. so as i began to try to make sh change in the department -- some -- what i came to realize is this: it comes down to will. the will of the leader to make change. and the will of the leader to be unyielding and unbending. i learned that from this guy to my left specifically because i saw him do it in our department before i left. joe became unyielding in my desire to change and transform the department. really, at that time i was using the word trance form and we would transform who we are, what we look like, and how we are perceived by the community. those early months we made a lot of changes. i have to admit not many of them were well accepted by the rank and file. all 434 members in my department at one time and i told them in
six months the community would like me just fine. they may hate the police department but they will like herald medlock a lot. you can come along with me and we can begin to change who we are and what we look like or i would be out there by myself. we made great changes earlier on. i want to give you this fact and i will fill in the blanks. since october of 2013 we have had one officer-involved deadly use of force where an individual opened fire on the officer and he returned fire and took that individual's life. so we are almost three years, everybody knock, to having just one officer-involved shooting and that was involved with a middle age white guy. that has not been easy. as we begin to make change, i engaged or got more and more resistance from the department,
from the rank and file and from many of my commanders. what i found was when you are in a department for 20-25-30 years you close ranks and everything from your perspective, and i am speaking from previous non-chief perspective, everything looks pretty good. it can't be what the community from your perspective, and i am really says that it is because we know the facts. we are the cops and know best for the community. whatever the community is saying doesn't matter because we know best. we are the professionals. about eight months into my tenure in faithful i learn offend the collaborative process in las vegas and pulled that report and looked at it and recognized there was an opportunity for us to have a fresh look at what we were doing in our city and in our police department by a group of professionals that are us who look like us and who talk like us. so i began to pursue that opportunity to be one of those collaborative reform process departments. now, that in itself, when you say i am pursuing the department
of justice to come in and help us, is like saying i am going to the irs and asking for an audit. so, from our many in our city government, there was concern about that. the only time the department of justice comes in to help a police department is not usually at an invitation but as the result of a nightmare that occurred that bad day.
we wield that to happen by pursuing the department of justice and the folks with the collaborative reform process to work with us. i badgered ron davis, the office direct director director, for several months and i think he relented to get me out of his hair. it was met with suspicion from inside the department, across the city government, and believe it or not from across the community. there is a group, probably not as large now as it was two and a half years ago, but there was a group that simply thought we were trying to white wash our problems. we are trying to put a bandaid and cover an old wound. as we began the process, many in the department recognized absolutely this was not going to be a white wash job and many in city government recognized that. then the questions came from
across the street as we called city hall, how much is this going to cost? and we continued with the process. one of the things we did early on was engage every member of our command staff in the collaborative reform process. so when the 76 recommendations came out about nine months ago those people had already been involved in working thew many of the details and information that the group from cna and doj provided and we began to learn from ourselves the things we needed to change. as the recommendations started bubbling up, and the final report coming out with the 76 recommendations, we were on our way to recognizing understanding many of the reforms we needed to
make in our department. we engaged the community in that process, they became believers in the collaborative reform process. we the -- we engaged our city government and they became believers as well. we have been able to do this with very little money, without a great deal of cost, because we are using the resources of the government. we are also traveling to learn from other departments, bring in other departments into teach us some of the things they are doing. it has been a relatively painless process. it has been a relatively inexpensive process. one of the early questions, and again, i just want to share the story, one of the early questions was chief, this is going to cost us millions of dollars. and my response was so will one lawsuit. we cannot afford not to do what why endeavoring to do and we received that buy-in. so we are not there yet.
we have about 90% of the recommendations. the 76 recommendations completed, sent to the department of justice, our partners, and the team here, cna. and they are reviewing and have reviewed most of it. we have put in place recommendations, suggestions, and training that came from this. what if i have seen over the last eight months is really interesting in the department. he have transformed our department not reformed our department. we became something many in the fayetteville police department never thought we would become.
we send community meetings without yells and police officers against the back of the wall guarding those who are speaking. we end meetings with hugs now and when you do that you begin to transform. doesn't mean we have quit the hard job of policing but what it does mean is we are doing the right things at the right time for the right reason. not doing things that are legal and according to policy. three and a half years ago, we were very policy-driven. as long as the officer followed policy and the legal opinion they were thought to be ok. legal and according to policy doesn't mean good or right. now we have become that just
department department. we have issues and problems but are trying to police in a right manner for the right reasons. then following good policy and law for the right reason. so we transformed ourselves. last night we were attending a large community meeting and going into the meeting, the issue was police and the community. what it ended up being with many of the political figures in the city and council that confronted the room, turned out to be an economic development and one part of the city discussion and skewering and where are we going to put that new baseball stadium.
so we transformed ourselves with the community while it sounds good were a chief to tell you we have transformed. it is rewarding to have officers say, you know, chief, they actually like us. we are part of the community. so about four months ago we sat down with a group of officers and we said you know, we need to change who we are by telling folks what we are and what we believe. our slogan if you will now is this: one agency, one community, one family, one. that is who we are in fayetteville, north carolina. thank you. [applause] >> good evening, i am robert monroe. i have been in law enforcement 40 years and i have been the chief of police for 15 years. it has probably been one of the most rewarding things i have
ever had the opportunity to do and because of that is based on having the ability to serve. i considered myself as a servant and looked at the job as a servant-type job. i have gone to three departments as chief and it has been more or less to try to transition those departments into more engaging, more opportunities as it relates to the community. i ask myself over the last 15 years three specific questions ever place i went. they are questions all of the time. transformation or reform shouldn't be something that happens on a particular incident. you have to be honest with the
answer of that question. number two, are there risks within our community as it relates to the police and our community. you have to be honest enough to answer that one correctly. the faction of the community believe the police respond fairly to the community and if you ask those and the answer is now you start from there and try to move forward. i think you will start to see the success of bringing together the community. you can see in a lot of reports and a lot of engagements there is a lack of trust among african-americans, minorities, youth, mentally ill individuals, those who represent mentally ill individuals, ex-offenders, offenders. if you look at the barometer of
trust in those individuals compared to other groups you can see a division. i think we have to be in a position of looking to engage the community. if you look at the issues that caused that trust to erode among that group you only need to look at issues such as racial profiling, arrests, drugs, lack of youth programs.
all of those things are at the trust of the trust and legit legitamacy of the organization. that will allow you to look forward, look to engage all segments of your community in order to bring people together. the president's 21st century task force on policing was revolutionary. it was the first time i believe you had the opportunity with people from all different walks of life to come together and speak about the issues and concerns affecting communities and policing across the country. i mean every segment of the community as a country was represented. they traveled across the country in order to hear and listen to people. it wasn't necessary new things we heard. but it allowed us to solidify things we knew were true and
coming together with a national report and recommendations to go out to law enforcement and communities around the country. i believe that is truly one of the most revolutionary things that happened in policing and community relations in the history of policing. one of the biggest areas i look to focus on is the pillar number one that talks about building trust and legit. you need the community's trust but you need the officers to believe they, too, are trusted and are legitemaimate. we will give everyone a voice, right wrong, indifferent, and allow people to speak and be heard as it relates to their situation. how they proceed their particular situation within the community. respect. you must respect everyone whether it is the senior citizen
that is calling to ask for your assist assistance in getting in her house to the individual you just arrested for murder. everyone must be treated with the same level of respect. where you call an individual arrested for murder, mister or sir, or called an 78-year-old gentlemen looking to get his home sir. respect goes a long way in policing your community. neutrality. we have all biases going in but
recognizing them and allowing yourself to always be neutral. always be willing to explain and listen to what your purpose is and how you operate. understanding. we must be understanding of the issues and the concerns that people have. what we experience as police officers, many of us have never experienced those things before in our lives.
not listening with empathy and understanding causes rifts. being able to listen and understand people's perspectives car carry you an along way. and finally another ten ant is being helpful. that is where the guardian versus warrior comes in. being a guardian is not weak, being able to be trusting of individuals, being able to help individuals, be the strength for individuals versus always looking for that fight as a warrior. so when you hear the word guardian, embrace it. allow officers to understand the true value and menaning of being a guardian. with that, let's talk about real-life scenario and how do these things come into play. whether you are developing groups to help families who lost loved ones to homicide, allowing families to help engage to bring comfort, and to help bring very valuable information to your a mother of a homicide case
sitting there with another mother who is being interviewed for a current case can bring respect to the family and the case. that is where the respect of procedural justice comes in. when families x to a homicide scene, creating safe spots where they can have contact with the police and can be separated from the rest of the crowd. getting the crowd rallied up and having that family separated and comforted and having that family informed about what your investigation entails goes a long way in solidifying the respect for that particular family. diversion programs.
creating diversion programs for young people. young people make mistakes. at 16-17 you break into a car; why not provide another opportunity for that individual that allows that individual to be diverted out of that harsh criminal justice system that in many cases doesn't give a 14-16-year-old any good. being able to divert them out of that system. again you are being a guardian of our youth. you are providing other opportunities for our young people. ex-offenders. i believe that police departments should look with other organizations, not necessarily as the lead, but a support mechanisms for whether it is a church group, whether it is some other organization out there working with ex-offenders.
a lot of times the officers don't have the where with all or the muscle to push through for funding. but i believe if you partner with the right organizations for the right reason, to rehabilitate that x offender, police departments can play a really good role. you can hold those individuals accountable. engagelow themselves to with law enforcement under noncontroversial stances to benefit that relationship and better that understanding. and to give people the opportunity to believe there is another chance for them to
succeed. we will never arrest our way out of the issues and problems we have. so why not look to reduce three reducem rate -- the -- the recidivism rate. technology is something that we truly need to make greater investments in. whatu are not measuring you are doing in law enforcement it is hard to manage it. we have so many different disparaging systems. whether it is our computer aided dispatch system. whether it is those on probation, whether it is stop data. by now they are talking to another where you can look at crime, you can look at arrest,
you can look at gun recovery, you can look at other things that will give you a clear picture of what is going on in your community. not only what is going on but how your offices are addressing particular issues. we need more officers a tune of six, $8 million than it is to go 500,000 to $1 million investment in technology. that ibeen reading didn't to technology -- reading that buy inuoye to technology -- to technology. we were looking at crime, predicting when crime was occurring, based only on calls
to service and arrest records. school closings, holidays, even paydays. as a release to robberies uncertain days of the week. never underestimate and undervalue the impact that technology can have on you. we believe being open and ottis -- open and honest entering critical issues is important in setting and building that trust and establishing that legitimacy. i will close with this particular story. and officer-involved shooting, questionable? me with the officer and ensure that the officer is fair and impartial.
at the same time, reaching out to the family. meeting the family at the airport when they arrived in town. video of thethe shooting in the presence of their attorney. once an arrest was made, bringing the officers around the whyrtment explain to them we made the decision we made. continuing to keep the family updated on particular incidents. the result of that initially presented and allowed officers within the community to voice their concerns and gather better understanding and moving forward, i think it just allowed the community to say that we believe and we trust in the organization that is
representing us. but always remember that trust is only at a certain level and there is always a level above that and a level above that you can reach and always look to try to reach the highest level of that trust and legitimacy within your organization. thank you. [applause] [inaudible] >> so i have one. i want to thank chief medlock for introduceing one of my favorite new police metrics; hugs. i would like to ask each of you three how has your involvement in reform changed performance measurements and metrics? and noel, i will ask you to react to that.
can you do that? >> if you were to take training as an area, when we talk about situational reality, training, those type of things especially in the area of use of force but also dealing with de-escalation and retreat and actually measuring those things. all too often we only measure how many bullets were directly down range in the target. but really being open and honest about the measures how an officer performs as it relates to the information. how does an officer perform as it relates to decision making and judgment?
those budgets that do that score, that would allow you to understand where you have challenges, where that officer may still have challenges, but more importantly we'll have greater opportunities to show all of your officers the im importance and value of those types of training. just don't stop at saying we going to train people in de-escalation. really device a metric and measure determining whether or not comprehending, understanding and performing the way the curriculum has been designed. >> i will build on that. i think self-awareness from the officer perspective is probably one of the most telling aspects and that is their willingness to become more transparent with
calls for service and how they handled them in de-escalating a situation or in some cases we call it slowing down. instead of retreat we want to slow the action down and take control of it. as the officers are now becoming more comfortable in slowing down situations and resolving them peacefully we are taking an active role in celebrating those. we can say we are documenting that activity and it goes in a file and at the end of the year someone signs off on a piece of paper. but it is celebrating day in and day out that great bit of police work where people went home safely or were taken into custody safely and the cops went home safely. when the cop buys in the idea on a daily basis that their actions are going to be acknowledged for a job well-done and performance becomes even at a higher level. you know, cops are competitive. they want to get the latest and greatest. they want to be that person that does the best job.
so i think as we as leaders continue to encourage that at every level of the department it is going to improve our performances, our self awareness, and our self satisfaction of the job. i think it also allows the community to say, you know, these people know what they are doing and they are really concerned about getting people home safely every day. and i don't mean the cops but the public and the folks we are out there keeping the peace for. >> metrics in violent crime, we often measures an effective officer by how many cars he made or felony arrests he made.
the metric has to change with what is the common goal and should the officer turn left or right that night? is the mission to make arrests that matter and impact the community in ways that make our strategies known and effective and trusted by the community? and i think the most important metric is what those efforts show us can never be measured because what is prevented, never happened, and can't be accounted for. >> metric, i will talk it from the standard of national standards. -- standpoint. i don't think there is a leader that should every say they don't know how to police in the 21st century. there is a 21st century book on policing, there are commissions taking place since the 1960's, there is cna, police executive research forum, there is the police foundation and cops that release publication over and over again. take that information, line it up with what our national best practices are, and then leakalize it to your community -- localize -- and i mean get the community involved, internal officers involved but the last
thing i will say and i say this because i heard the panelist talk and i know many of them up here, the third thing is you can get all the standards you want but what they have done takes courage. it takes a willingness to step up and say this is where we need to be and we will do everything we need to do to get there. that takes courage. we know what the standards are, we know the best practices. it is time for us to have more courage is do it. >> things that you arell talked about is the important of transparency and transformation.
most of the information talked about in improvement is ant anecdotal. have you done surveys internally on the departments or externally on the community to get a sense of feelings? thank you. >> thank you, chip. i guess many people are aware that there is currently an assessment of police departments as it relates to the 221shgs 1shgs 1 -- 21st century policing and being able to measure the
effects of the recommendations that will serve as guide posts for other organizations to say here are the pillars, here are the recommendations, this is how you go about imp lltlementimplementing them because it involves the chief, command staff, every officer in the organization, and many members in the community. i believe that is the assessment that would allow other organizations to see how can i help move my organization toward 21st century policing. it has been there but it has never been packaged in the way others can pick it up and really note how to you go about truly implementing 21st century policing initiatives and strategies.
>> so, formally whu talk about surveys and this is -- when you texas sit-- cities and when you do a survey usually only folks that look like isrespond. the only interaction we had is when the conley alarm went off and they were afraid. we have to find a way to inter interact daily. the soccer moms and dads in the bleachers are not going to have time to do a survey and send it back and they will not have time
to sit on the phone and talk about someone's satisfaction. we need to figure out how to survey folks who do have the interaction with us, an example, a traffic stop, with the way texting works now why not be able to have a number you hand the person that just got the ticket, also a business card with us, a text survey and you have the immediate feedback. you know? some cops are going to say you know they will stick it to us because they got a ticket but we are trying to find out how that person was treated. do they feel they were treated with respect? did they feel good about the interaction with the officer not necessarily the interaction because they got the ticket. we, as a profession, have to find a way to be more immediate with feedback so we can develop new training, new opportunities
to reach people that we are serving every day and interacting with everyday. >> with the survey of police satisfaction, and police services and things we can consoncentrate on. reports toe those the police department and gives us a good look where we need to improve our services. some areas it is not a shock to us. they do a good job. it is straight from the city manager's office. >> we contact them out to an independent agency. all of the data and information is correlated at both places but pushed out by our innovation offices and assistant.
>> we used the university of north carolina, charlotte for our surveys. >> keeping on schedule, let me thank you, gentlemen, for excellent presentations. i feel like we heard from the best the country has to offer. please give another round of applause. [applause] we are going to go to a 15 minute break and come back and hear what they think on the other side of the street. >> the cna conference on public >> republican vice presidential candidate mike pence speaks at a campaign rally in virginia. to the white house
coverage begins today at 3 p.m. eastern on c-span. >> coming up on american history tv on c-span three, the abraham lincoln presidential library foundation published a book of musings by public figures and ordinary americans, celebrating or responding to link it is gettysburg address. the world response to lincoln's gettysburg address and reads passages from the book. his presence still resonates from the words he has written and the artifacts and documents he has left behind. he was a simple yet deeply looked atn who complex issues plainly and purely. many believe lincoln transcended all presidents who have served
before him and since. great american story continues to reach across borders and oceans, races and religions, politics and party lines. >> then on real america, the march on washington. information agency film for jobs and freedom. this year marks the 40th anniversary of the nasa viking landing on mars. historians recently discussed the viking program, which landed the first spacecraft on mars on july 20 19 76. >> the events were exciting. when it landed it was almost powered up.